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Monday, November 30, 2015

GLOBAL WARMING. !!! EVERYBODY'S BUSINESS.

World leaders have opened the UN climate conference in Paris known as COP21, aiming to forge a deal to limit global warming to 2°C.One Minute Climate Change Both US President Barack Obama and French President Francois Hollande issued rallying cries to officials on Monday, urging them to commit to reducing emissions.Obama said his country recognised its role in contributing to the climate change crisis, and would take the lead in fighting against it. He added that the meeting symbolized a global "act of defiance" that proves the world stands undeterred by attacks linked to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) group in Europe and beyond."What greater rejection of those who would tear down our world than martialling our best efforts to save it," Obama said. watch here;http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2015/11/climate-conference-paris-cop21-limit-global-warming-151130052816546.html

EBOLA COMPLICATIONS!!!

. Ebola survivors have been noted to have complications ,usually relating to vision.The major complications are loss of vision, redness of eyes, , swollen eyes, pain and severe sensitivity to light. This is a pointer that the virus has a residual bank in some organs exhibiting various signs and probably a point of new infection. The virus is known to be present in semen of survivors, indicating some grey areas in the Ebola saga .Read the story of 2 survivors here;http://www.livescience.com/52902-ebola-survivor-eye-problems-sacra.html

US POULTRY MORE EQUIPPED TO TACKLE BIRD FLU.

The US poultry can tackle any outbreak better.The country has stepped up her bio security protocol to limit infection and prevent spread in cases of outbreak.The bird flu virus cost the poultry and egg industry 390m in August 2015 because they culled 43m birds, so changes have been made to safeguard livestock. read more here;http://www.globalmeatnews.com/Safety-Legislation/US-poultry-will-handle-new-virus-better

Cut meat consumption to battle global warming, warn experts

Cut meat consumption to battle global warming, warn experts

FRANCE HIT BY FIRST BIRD FLU OUTBREAK IN 8 YEARS.

The highly pathogenic bird flu virus H5N1 has been discovered on a farm in Dordogne,where it killed 75% of birds on the farm . A 10km surveillance radius has been established around farm to prevent spread to other poultry farms.The agriculture minister confirmed the outbreak,and south Korea has banned importation of poultry from France. The virus is deadly and spreads easily if bio security protocols are not enforced, hand washing after handling birds is very important.read more here; http://www.globalmeatnews.com/Industry-Markets/France-hit-by-first-bird-flu-outbreak-in-eight-years/?utm_source=newsletter_daily&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=30-Nov-2015&c=KviYxCjZMiXfdfZP1fvhvMG3x5RsDoMO&p2=

Sunday, November 29, 2015

EYE HEALTH IN DOGS.

Eyes of the dog should be checked regularly as they are pointers to the state of health.Eye infections can be localized or it can be a spill over of a systemic infection.Eyes should be bright,clear ,clean and must not exhibit any discharges, must not be red or blood shoot. Dogs sometimes present sleepy dust,which is simply dried mucus ,a natural protective secretion that keeps eyes clean.This is easily removed by using moist cotton balls. The eye conditions include conjunctivitis, abscesses, pink eye,tumors, entropion and ectropion. Conjunctivitis is the most common,this is the inflammation of the eye's protective mucous membrane. The eye is usually red, swollen and with watery or mucoid discharges when its an irritation or allergy or trauma. When there is an infection ,the eyes are red,swollen and discharges become yellow to green. Treatment; 1)clean the affected eye.with moist cotton. 2)note type of discharge. 3) apply an eye drop; that has anti inflammatory and antibiotic properties. 4) give vitamin c supplement and cool water. 5) prevent exposure to sun.

FEVER IN DOGS.

Fever refers to an elevated temperature, also called hyperthermia occurs when the body temperature of the dog is way past the normal range.Fever is not a disease but an indication that pet is fighting an infection.Infections and inflammation results in fever in dogs.When a pet is exposed to infection or there is an underlying inflammatory reaction,the body's first response is to fight the infection and this is characterized with an elevated temperature. Fever occurs in bacterial,viral, fungal infection, cases of abscess,urinary tract infection and pneumonia. The cause can sometimes be unknown and its associated with immune system, fever if prolonged results in damage of internal organs. The common signs associated with fever are 1) inappetence. 2) weakness 3)depression 4) shivering 5)coughing 6) dehydration. Treatment; check older post.

EQUINE GRASS SICKNESS.

Equine grass sickness is fatal condition in horses on pasture, the condition results in colic and prognosis is guarded.The condition affects all age groups,can occur at any time but very common in wet conditions/seasons. The cause of the condition has been pinned as Clostridium botulinum,this bacteria lives in moist soil and when it spreads on grass its eaten by the horse,resulting in severe poisoning. The bacteria toxins affect the horses's intestinal tract which affects the nerves causing a dysfunction resulting in severe colic. The onset of the equine grass sickness could be per acute, acute and chronic.In per acute cases the horses are found dead.The prognosis in the chronic and acute cases are guarded. The acute case, the onset is sudden, with severe abdominal discomfort, high pulse rate and restlessness. The treatment is colic surgery.While the chronic case ,the horse slowly develops a persistent low grade colic with rapid weight loss.The upper eye lid is droopy and there is sticky nasal discharge, and fecal balls are hard and small.The treatment is pain relief and supportive therapy. Equine grass sickness can be prevented with pasture identification; if an area has record of such sickness avoid letting horses in area.Where there has been recent work lately, that involves soil works or turning should be avoided.Areas where dead animals are commonly found in pasture should be avoided.Horses that do not depend solely on grasses for nutrition hardly come down with grass sickness,thus feeding hay at pasture and bringing horses in to stable at night may help reduce its occurrence.

Saturday, November 28, 2015

6 awesome TED talks about science and technology by Arabs

6 awesome TED talks about science and technology by Arabs

TREATMENT OF NEONATAL MALADJUSTMENT SYNDROME.

Watch video of treatment here;https://youtu.be/zmbhp4mbZX4 via @YouTube Using several loops of a soft rope to gently squeeze the foal’s upper torso for 20 minutes—to mimic the time spent experiencing birth canal’s pressure—can ease the disorder’s symptoms, researchers have found. Early cases have produced some success. foal maladjustment syndrome.

FOAL DISORDER LINKED TO AUTISM IN MAN.

Veterinary researchers at the University of California, Davis, are exploring possible ties between a foal disorder and autism.Abnormal levels of naturally occurring neuro -steroids may be the common link, according to a UC Davis release. The horse disorder—known as neonatal maladjustment syndrome—has been a mystery for a century. Signs of the little-understood condition that appear in 3 to 5 percent of live births are detachment, failure to recognize their mothers and no interest in nursing.“The behavioral abnormalities in these foals seem to resemble some of the symptoms in children with autism,” says John Madigan, DVM, MS, UC Davis veterinary professor and expert in equine neonatal health. Nursing newborn horses with the disorder is demanding. Eighty percent of foals survive with intensive care in a veterinary clinic and constant bottle or tube feeding for up to 10 days. Researchers are eying naturally occurring neurosteroids as a top suspect in causing the disorder. The compound acts as a sedative and keeps the foal “quiet” before birth.“Foals don’t gallop in utero,” Madigan says in the release. However, the foal must be able to run shortly after its birth. The biochemical change the newborn undergoes in the birth canal may be triggered by the physical pressure of the birthing process, researchers believe. read more here;http://veterinarynews.dvm360.com/new-veterinary-treatment-foal-disorder-simulates-necessary-trigger-birthing-process

Antibiotic-resistant gene discovered in soil bacterium that commonly infects foals.

Rhodococcus equi is one of the most important causes of disease in young horses,A research team based in the University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine has discovered a novel gene—erm(46)—that confers antibiotic resistance in Rhodococcus equi, a soil-dwelling baterium that commonly infects foals and causes opportunistic infections in immunocompromised people, according to a release from the university. R. equi, a gram-positive intracellular pathogen, is one of the most important causes of disease in foals between 3 weeks and 5 months of age. Read more here;http://veterinarynews.dvm360.com/antibiotic-resistant-gene-discovered-soil-bacterium-commonly-infects-foals

WOUND RECONSTRUCTION IN HORSES.

These grafts involve relocating the skin from a donor site to cover a wound and restore function and cosmetics in your veterinary equine patients.In horses, skin grafts are most often used for limb wounds where primary closure is not possible or second intention healing is delayed or not occurring. Grafts may also be considered for large wounds of the trunk, as grafting will decrease healing time. This article concentrates on free skin grafts, with an emphasis on punch grafts. With free skin grafts, the donor skin is severed from its blood supply and relocated to a wound. Free skin grafts are categorized by thickness and type. Full-thickness grafts include epidermis and the entire dermis. Split-thickness grafts include epidermis and a portion of dermis. Full- and split-thickness grafts can be either sheet grafts or island grafts. Sheet grafts are applied to the surface of a wound, and island grafts are embedded in the wound (Figure 1). Island graft techniques include punch, pinch, tunnel and modified meek grafts. The advantage of island grafts is that the failure or loss of one graft does not affect other grafts in the wound. read more here;http://veterinarynews.dvm360.com/wound-reconstruction-free-skin-grafts-horses

WOUND RECONSTRUCTION IN HORSES.

These grafts involve relocating the skin from a donor site to cover a wound and restore function and cosmetics in your veterinary equine patients.In horses, skin grafts are most often used for limb wounds where primary closure is not possible or second intention healing is delayed or not occurring. Grafts may also be considered for large wounds of the trunk, as grafting will decrease healing time. This article concentrates on free skin grafts, with an emphasis on punch grafts. With free skin grafts, the donor skin is severed from its blood supply and relocated to a wound. Free skin grafts are categorized by thickness and type. Full-thickness grafts include epidermis and the entire dermis. Split-thickness grafts include epidermis and a portion of dermis. Full- and split-thickness grafts can be either sheet grafts or island grafts. Sheet grafts are applied to the surface of a wound, and island grafts are embedded in the wound (Figure 1). Island graft techniques include punch, pinch, tunnel and modified meek grafts. The advantage of island grafts is that the failure or loss of one graft does not affect other grafts in the wound. read more here;http://veterinarynews.dvm360.com/wound-reconstruction-free-skin-grafts-horses

WOUND RECONSTRUCTION IN HORSES.

These grafts involve relocating the skin from a donor site to cover a wound and restore function and cosmetics in your veterinary equine patients.In horses, skin grafts are most often used for limb wounds where primary closure is not possible or second intention healing is delayed or not occurring. Grafts may also be considered for large wounds of the trunk, as grafting will decrease healing time. This article concentrates on free skin grafts, with an emphasis on punch grafts. With free skin grafts, the donor skin is severed from its blood supply and relocated to a wound. Free skin grafts are categorized by thickness and type. Full-thickness grafts include epidermis and the entire dermis. Split-thickness grafts include epidermis and a portion of dermis. Full- and split-thickness grafts can be either sheet grafts or island grafts. Sheet grafts are applied to the surface of a wound, and island grafts are embedded in the wound (Figure 1). Island graft techniques include punch, pinch, tunnel and modified meek grafts. The advantage of island grafts is that the failure or loss of one graft does not affect other grafts in the wound. read more here;http://veterinarynews.dvm360.com/wound-reconstruction-free-skin-grafts-horses

WOUND RECONSTRUCTION IN HORSES.

These grafts involve relocating the skin from a donor site to cover a wound and restore function and cosmetics in your veterinary equine patients.In horses, skin grafts are most often used for limb wounds where primary closure is not possible or second intention healing is delayed or not occurring. Grafts may also be considered for large wounds of the trunk, as grafting will decrease healing time. This article concentrates on free skin grafts, with an emphasis on punch grafts. With free skin grafts, the donor skin is severed from its blood supply and relocated to a wound. Free skin grafts are categorized by thickness and type. Full-thickness grafts include epidermis and the entire dermis. Split-thickness grafts include epidermis and a portion of dermis. Full- and split-thickness grafts can be either sheet grafts or island grafts. Sheet grafts are applied to the surface of a wound, and island grafts are embedded in the wound (Figure 1). Island graft techniques include punch, pinch, tunnel and modified meek grafts. The advantage of island grafts is that the failure or loss of one graft does not affect other grafts in the wound. read more here;http://veterinarynews.dvm360.com/wound-reconstruction-free-skin-grafts-horses

ABDOMINOCENTESIS IN THE HORSE.

Fluid analysis can provide important insights into how to manage colic and other troubling equine cases.Acute abdomen (colic), fever and weight loss are just a few of the reasons you might need to collect abdominal fluid in an adult horse. In many cases of acute abdomen, rapid and uncontaminated sampling of abdominal fluid can help you make important medical or surgical decisions. With advances in biochemical testing and wide availability of equipment at reasonable cost, abdominal fluid analysis can be used to determine the difference between compromised bowel and septic or aseptic peritonitis, as well as whether surgical intervention is indicated. Interpretation of fluid analysis also gives you an indication of whether treatment or surgery will end with a successful outcome. Several methods have been described for fluid collection, the considerations include; An abdominocentesis should be performed in a standing sedated horse that is appropriately restrained and preferably in stocks, if available. The location for fluid collection, unless indicated otherwise by ultrasound guidance, is the most dependent part of the abdomen just to the right of the ventral midline—this helps avoid penetration of the ventral curvature of the spleen. read more here;http://veterinarynews.dvm360.com/how-perform-abdominocentesis-standing-adult-horse

LIMB LACERATION IN HORSES.

. Handling hemorrhaging is basically,the same in every animal, the key being to stop the bleeding and prevent animal from going into shock.A wound is basically a break in the continuity of the tissues of the body,which could be internal or external. wounds could be deep or superficial and they could also involve vessels, this will be evidenced by spurting of blood in contrast to oozing of blood from break in integument. Wounds no matter the structures involved, are emergency situations and should be given immediate attention. The first step is to stop the bleeding by applying pressure on site,using a clean gauze or cloth ,absorbing the blood and allowing it to clot.When blood soaks the cloth do not remove just continue to add more absorbent cloth and continue adding pressure. Its important not to remove clots when formed,do not disturb the clotting process. Elevation is another means to stop bleeding, ensure the limb level is above the level of the heart, a combination of elevation and applying direct pressure will stop bleeding effectively. Ensure you seek veterinary assistance immediately . Read more here;http://www.thehorse.com/articles/36755/how-to-manage-limb-lacerations-in-horses?utm_source=Newsletter&utm_medium=lameness&utm_campaign=11-25-2015

JOINT HEALTH FOR HORSES.

Injuries can occur any time and its the responsibility of pet owners to ensure they protect their animals. Injuries ranging from trauma, slips, falls and puncture wounds should all be guarded against as this will be predisposing conditions for lameness ,poor performance and death in cases of infection of wounds. The horse stalls and stables must be comfortable,airy and free of materials that can be a source of injury such as nails, coiled wires, iron pieces e.t.c. This is where the stall mats come in handy.These are highly durable, recycled rubber that are made into comfortable mats /mattress for the comfort of your animals. The mats are flat, and provide a non-slip surface for the horses preventing any fall. The mats ensures safety by limiting the number of falls and subsequent injuries/lameness.The mats are non porous, so they are easy to clean and disinfect preventing a proliferation of bacteria,thus limiting infection. The horses are comfortable ,without the risk of any injury from penetrating objects in the stall, horses housed in stalls with these mats are clean,calm and very sociable. Get your mats here;http://www.animat.ca/en/equine/

PROMOTING EQUINE JOINT HEALTH.

Horse owners are aware that the predominant factor limiting a horse's athletic longevity is musculoskeletal injury--particularly joint problems. A common assumption is that these injuries result from wear-and-tear and age. Consequently, owners further assume there's not much to be done about it. But think again: Using sensible strategies you can promote healthy equine joints capable of withstanding athletic demands. Balanced nutrition, sensible exercise, and prompt treatment can help a horse's joints function comfortable past their prime. Exercise management is crucial for the rapidly growing horse and is best coupled with a balanced feed ration. "Articular cartilage manages its nutrition and waste product production via normal use and weight bearing, . "Exercise is good but in excess could lead to -problems."Avoiding excessive exercise strain helps reduce potential injuries in foals that could result in growth plate trauma or subchondral (under the cartilage) bone cyst formation within joints. "Moderate exercise with gradual increases in intensity and duration results in better cartilage health and fewer injuries than that imposed by sudden, high-intensity loading.However, it is equally important not to limit a growing youngster's exercise too much since strain-force application (from loading the limbs) helps bone and soft tissue develop properly. There's evidence that articular cartilage responds in a 'handed' fashion--if a young horse works in one direction more than another, cartilage development can differ between limbs .The objective should be to familiarize the young horse with the longe line or round pen rather than attempting conditioning-training work. Implement early exercise in a thoughtful, deliberate manner that limits excessive repetition, which is challenging not only to joints but to tendon, ligament, and muscle as well. Preventing injury is the primary objective in long-term joint health management in horses of all ages. For the grown horse in training ,good body weight and muscle strength are the most important goals, along with conditioning for the specific exercise demands the horse will be performing. When a joint injury does occur, the owner plays an essential role in rapid detection. Close observation and knowing a horse's structure and personality are helpful. Get veterinary attention at the first notice of abnormal clinical signs; such as swelling, heat, pain, and/or lameness; joint effusion (excess fluid in a joint space) is typically the first abnormal sign seen after joint injury. With time and progression, a steady decline in performance associated with gait changes or a horse's reluctance to perform expected athletic efforts. read more here;http://www.thehorse.com/articles/29798/promoting-lifelong-equine-joint-health?utm_source=Newsletter&utm_medium=older-horse-care&utm_campaign=11-27-2015

OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS AND OSTEOARTHRITIS IN HORSES.

Many owners provide their horses with omega-3 fatty acid supplements purported to support skin, coat, and hoof health; maximize joint health; manage behavior and cognitive issues; and even function as a natural insect repellent. A recent revealed the following; Supplementation with the omega-3 product increased EPA and DHA levels in blood and synovial fluid,the recombinant equine interleukin-1β injection successfully induced an inflammatory response (synovitis) in the carpus. Although more research is needed, this study supports the hypothesis that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation could modify the equine joint’s response to inflammation and might serve as an important chondro protective (protecting the cartilage) agent. read more at study here;http://www.thehorse.com/articles/36673/omega-3-fatty-acids-could-benefit-horses-with-osteoarthritis?utm_source=Newsletter&utm_medium=older-horse-care&utm_campaign=11-27-2015

Friday, November 27, 2015

ANIMAL MATS FOR COMFORT.

These mats made from recycled tyres provide support and protection to the animals. The benefits of the mats are as follows; 1) hygienic stalls. 2)prevents injuries. 3)prevents falling ,slipping. 4)absorbs pressure especially in forelimbs. read more here http://www.animat.ca/en/equine/;

CHINA CLONING FACTORY TO PRODUCE A MILLION CATTLE.

In a bid to ensure food security, China has gone the biotech way to provide beef for consumption.The world’s biggest animal “cloning factory” is due to open in China, producing one million calves a year, sniffer dogs and even genetic copies of the family pet. Interest in agricultural biotechnology has been rapidly increasing in China, where farmers are struggling to provide enough beef for the country’s growing middle classes. Prices of the meat are said to have tripled from 2000 to 2013. Mr Xu said his new facility will clone racehorses and a handful of dogs for people with “emotional ties” to their pets, but its main focus was producing cattle. However, he appeared to be more excited about its ability to churn out sniffer dogs. read more here;http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/china/12013158/China-cloning-factory-to-produce-cattle-racehorses-and-pets.html

HEAT STROKE IN DOGS.

Heat stroke also referred to as heat prostration occurs when there is an elevated temperature. Dogs are very uncomfortable in hot environment than in cold regions.Dogs can easily suffer heat stress leading to prostration and consequently death within a short period. Ventilation is very important to health of pet,thus we need to ensure the environment is airy and conducive.Dogs cool themselves by panting which progressively become ineffective in extreme heat,poor ventilation or when pet is dehydrated because of lack of moisture on the tongue. Conditions that predisposes to heat stress are as follows 1) extreme temperatures. 2) locking a door in a car with windows up. 3) tying a dog in the sun for a long time. 4) exercising your dog on a hot day. Signs of heat stroke ; 1) restlessness 2)excessive panting. 3)weakness. 4) ropy,stringy saliva. 5) lying on the side,with extended limbs. What to do when you observe signs of heat; 1) take pet to cool area.2) give fresh cool water 3) cool the pet down. Cooling the pet down must not be rapid by pouring water on dog or bathing dog;, rather you use cold rags on the back line and cool the paws. A swab of alcohol can be rubbed on the back line to bring the temperature down and then seek veterinary attention to ascertain the condition of the dog.

RE; FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION.

Gambia bans this practice; one down many more countries to go!!!he Gambian government has introduced a ban on Female Genital Mutilation.Information Minister, Sheriff Bojang, on Tuesday in Banjul announced the order by President Yahya Jammeh, which came into force immediately.He said 158 females who carry out circumcision have stopped since a campaign was launched by the Gambia Committee for Traditional Practices. “In May, the committee urged the National Assembly to heed the call by local chiefs and communities to ban FGM in the country.It is not clear whether legislation would be put in place to enforce the ban,” he said. read more here; http://www.premiumtimesng.com/foreign/west-africa-foreign/193849-gambia-bans-female-genital-mutilation.html.

Similar proteins protect the skin of humans and turtles.

A new study shows the similarities between the skin of turtles and man. The turtle shell is a highly successful concept of evolutionary development and its defensive function clearly distinguishes turtles and tortoises from other reptiles. In the study, the working group led by Leopold Eckhart investigated the genes responsible for the skin layers of the shell of the European terrapin and a North American species of turtle, in order to compare them with the genes of human skin. The study findings suggest that a hard shell was formed as the result of mutations in a group of genes known as the Epidermal Differentiation Complex (EDC). Comparisons of genome data from various reptiles suggest that the EDC mutations responsible occurred when turtles split off from other reptiles around 250 million years ago. This new study shows that evolutionarily related genes have a protective function both in humans and also in tortoises and turtles. It is hoped that comparing the skin of humans and animals will provide a better understanding of the interaction of proteins. In future, the knowledge derived from this may lead to medical applications, for example to improved treatment for psoriasis, in which EDC gene mutations are found. read more here;http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/11/151125104911.htm

Precision agriculture.

Farmers that don’t learn about New agriculture technologies will get left behind because without smart farming ,the expected output will be low or nonexistent. Whether it is information and technology or equipment technology, there are technologies that will help our agriculture industry deliver a sustainable, affordable, and nutritious supply of food to global consumers. This is where precision agriculture comes to play ;where the use of data and technology driven alternatives ensure maximum output. Precision agriculture enables a farmer to do more within a short space of time and sure of desired harvest. Precision agriculture opens a new approach to agriculture, machines,data analysis and robots are used to get the results required. A farmer based on precision agriculture can determine when to place,where and how.soil analysis, moisture analysis and weather forecast can help prevent loses if planting is done in unfavorable sites. Precision agriculture in animal husbandry helps farmers to manage the flock properly,there are various approaches but all with the same aim to alert farmers of any health issues or environmental issues and ensure rapid response and the desired result of more products at expected times. Precision agriculture here refers to use of tracking devices,tags,sensors to monitor the animals at any point in time. The major advantage of precision agriculture is that it reduces labor cost and ensures better yield at all levels. It provides an easy,accessible on-the go assessment of your herd and your crops. The mobile platform makes it easy to check updates and respond fast. precision agriculture is the future of agriculture and a key to food security. The technology for driverless, fully connected, practically people-less precision agriculture is thriving in the US and coming to Europe, says Antonio Marzia, vice president of Precision Solutions at CNH Industrial, makers of some of the world’s largest and most advanced farm machinery. He sees big data, machinery, climatology and agronomy all combining to increase productivity and reduce labor costs. This is how precision agriculture is practiced; a farm manager of the near future watches a large tractor on a screen in his office. It has no driver but is maneuvering itself around trees, precisely planting seeds to within a centimeter. Sensors measure soil moisture to a depth of 100cm and a mini weather station tells him the humidity and temperature. He receives an automated text warning of a major storm approaching. His insurance company in the US automatically calculates from millions of bits of historical weather data that he may have to replant the field at a cost of £2,000. It offers him an instant quote. If a satellite confirms that the storm ruins his crop he will be paid instantly. Robot farmers are the future of agriculture as a farmer switches to another screen where he can observe his herd of 500 cows. Each animal is being monitored for its milk yield, body weight, the food it has consumed and its location. Sensors on their collars indicate that one cow is behaving slightly unusually. The computer warns him that she is likely to be ill and could infect the others.More

Veterinary medicine: URTICARIA IN DOGS.

Veterinary medicine: URTICARIA IN DOGS.: Urticaria also called hives is an allergic reaction to an irritant which could be pollen, parasite,dust mites,food, chemicals or even pa...

URTICARIA IN DOGS.

Urticaria also called hives is an allergic reaction to an irritant which could be pollen, parasite,dust mites,food, chemicals or even paints or sprays.The trigger /allergen initiates a chemical reaction in the body where mast cells respond by releasing histamine,thus the dog breaks out in hives/eruptions on the body. The allergen varies for different patients and the response time also varies with allergen. The dogs have irritating eruptions on the body that are itchy, making the dog very restless and uncomfortable. The first step is to trace/track your pet's movement prior to the irritation; check the food; is it new? 2) did you change shampoo/ lotion. 3) check for ectoparasite. Do a check to limit exposure to the allergen and proceed to treat the dog by using a topical antihistamine agent.Natural remedies can also be effective; 1) a mix of vinegar and water in a squirt bottle and apply all over the body. 2)aloe vera gel can be rubbed on the body ,its anti inflammatory,antihistamine properties works perfectly for this condition. When you note the allergen prevent future exposure.

SNAKE BITES IN DOGS.

photo credit = internet. Dogs are generally curious,rampaging through stuff,sticking heads in holes and generally running around for fun.They have the tendency to be bitten by snakes ,and when this happens its an emergency and first aid is essential and a necessity. When dogs are bitten its better to assume the snake is poisonous and so initiate treatment protocol.Snake bites are complex and need attention immediately since the various venom's exhibit different signs. Some snakes venom cause shock and rapid death ,while other cause paralysis and it usually requires a large quantity of venom before much damage is done and some others have concentrated venom resulting in death within hours. When a dog is bitten the first step is to prevent movement of the dog to prevent circulation of venom; 1) immobilize the limb. 2)keep animal calm 3)prevent the venom from circulating by using a tourniquet and ice pack in the area 4) seek veterinary attention immediately where an anti-venom is administered. When a dog is bitten DO NOT; 1) cut the bite site open. 2)attempt to suck poison out. 3) do not leave dog unattended to and try to kill snake. Snake bite code is save the pet first and try to kill the snake later.

Thursday, November 26, 2015

BENEFITS OF METRONIDAZOLE IN DOGS.

This is a must have for dog owners especially for diarrhea, and in cases of inflammatory bowel disease. The drug is important for the following reasons; 1) used gastrointestinal infections. 2) cases of tetanus. 3)wound infections after surgery. 4)internal parasites. 5)treat pneumonia. 6) cases of food poisoning. 7)treatment of parvo viral infection. 8) infections affecting the reproductive organs. 9) infections of the oral cavity.

DANDRUFF IN DOGS.

Dandruff refers to flaking off of dead cells,when skin cells die.Dandruff in dogs is usually a pile up of dead cells in the coat of the dog.The flakes are obvious when dogs scratches the coat.The normal dying of cells is the main cause of the dandruff but other underlying factors also result in the condition. These include 1)allergic reaction. 2) parasitic infection. 3)poor hygiene. 4)poor nutritional status. 5)low levels of oil in the body. 6)poor levels of fluid in the body. 7)dogs on dry foods are prone to dandruff. TREATMENT; note underlying cause and treat accordingly. 1) bath dog with medicated shampoo. 2)ensure no ectoparasites are present. 3) give balanced diet with a supplement of fish oil. 4) make cool fresh water available regularly. 5) in corporate coconut oil to grooming protocol.

COMMON HOUSEHOLD ITEMS ESSENTIAL FOR EVERY PET OWNER.

Every pet owner needs a kit for emergencies or to provide a quick fix before you get to a veterinarian.These items are so common around the home but it will make a lot of sense to have them handy and in a dedicated bag.The items are 1) Thermometer.; necessary to ascertain the correct temperature status of your pet.An elevation or a low temperature both indicate an underlying issue that needs to be addressed. 2)Bandages; useful to hold limb in place in cases of injury. 3)Gauze; sterile gauze useful in wound treatment,also useful to make a muzzle when you need to restrain your pets. 4)Cotton wool; useful to clean wounds,ears and eyes.The cotton moistened with warm water is useful to remove sleepy dust from eyes. The cotton can be used to apply ointment on wound sites. 5)Adhesive tapes; to close up a wound after cleaning and treatment. 6)Antiseptic cream;to prevent infection in wound site. 7)Tweezers; to pick ticks from dog's coat,crush and destroy.Its also useful to pick sterile swabs and apply on wound. 8)Scissors; useful to cut gauze,bandage or pieces of material to make a tourniquet, or cut material to make a splint. 9)Sterile dressing, useful in wound dressing, 10)iodine; for wound treatment. 11)hydrogen peroxide; to induce vomiting in cases of poisoning.The peroxide is also used to clean wound surfaces. 12) Towel; used to cover pets to conserve heat in patients with shock.Towels are handy to carry pets in cases of accidents. 13)alum block,corn starch and baking soda; this acts as hemostats to stop bleeding .

MEGA-ESOPHAGUS.

This refers to a condition where peristalsis is altered because of an enlarged esophagus.The esophagus is the passage of food from mouth to stomach,thus when its enlarged the food passage is stalled leaving food in the throat for a prolonged time,the food is usually regurgitated or inhaled in lungs resulting in aspiration pneumonia The food often times decays in the throat resulting in foci of infection. The condition is common in horses,cats,dogs and humans,and it could be inherited as in the Friesian horse. The common signs associated with mega-esophagus are 1) inappetence 2) frequent episodes of regurgitation 3) severe weight loss. There are certain breeds predisposed to mega-esophagus, these include 1) great Dane,2) German shepherd 3)golden retriever 4)corgis,5) Siamese cat 6)Persian cat 7)Boston terrier 8)rottweiler 9)french bulldog e.t.c. The prognosis of the condition is guarded and the remedy is feeding the subject in a raised position; where the neck is stretched vertically to receive food and create an easy passage to the stomach. Dogs are usually fed in special chairs,to ensure they have required calories and prevent food stasis. photo credit; The telegraph.

Tuesday, November 24, 2015

TELECOMMUNICATION AS A TOOL FOR FOOD SECURITY AND SAFETY.

The role of telecommunication as a tool for food security,food safety and sustainability. The use of telecommunication to trace,track and report food fraud is explained below; This involves creating a platform ; a central data pool. This platform will be multifaceted,it will bring all the aspects of theagricultural chain together,providing a tracking and tracing model,which will be a planning tool,marketing tool and learning platform. How will it work?? the platform will have data of those involved in the various aspect of the chain,their location, the aspect of production they are involved in and the population of the birds. This information will give data on vaccination/medication, so that at any point in time the health status of various sets of birds can be accessed. The platform will be a marketing tool,where manufacturers of drugs,feed,farm tools can reach out to customers.The platform will be a vital tool for planning,because you know the number of birds in chain,the vaccines can be acquired, medications/vitamins can be sourced and distributed.Each chain operator will have a code,this will allow tracing,tracking and tailored medical interventions. The platform will grant open access to all strata of the chain; linking all aspects together so that customers can access all sale information on the site.Training and learning will be available on site,with hand outs,webinars and interactive forum;where producers can be tutored and new interested producers can be trained. The platform will make access about the chain easy,the platform will also be a money market where goods and services can be accessed and paid for by using your phone.This platform will provide an onsite information about the value chain. Partnership with local and international companies for exchange of technology will be easy using this inter phase.The agricultural value chain is broad and a platform for bringing all investors together is so vital to the success.

BENEFITS OF ACETIC ACID.

Common household products that can be useful in bio-security but you never thought about. I love to clean,its a passion for me. This passion has seen me using some un conventional agents as cleaning agents. There are products in your shelf that can rid you and your environment of germs thus preventing sickness and diseases. VINEGAR, normally you use it to wash your salad,but there is more to it. I normally mix a part of vinegar with water to clean my kitchen table. I also use it in the same dilution to wash meat and chicken . Add 4 tablespoons of vinegar to my washing soap in the washing machine. When floors need to be disinfected, i just add my vinegar to water, and i use it to clean the washed floors. Cleaning glass doors and dinning just got easy,just damp your cleaning rag with diluted vinegar,and wipe= super clean surfaces. OOps! spilled coffee on your rug,no worries; mix the vinegar and spot it on= =,no more stains. Vinegar is actually acetic acid,that is capable of killing bacteria.

TRACING WITH QR CODES TO PREVENT FOOD FRAUD.

The recalls concering a lot of food items and pet products have sensitized the public about food sources,handling and codes.The recalls are usually done per batches or dates of manufacture depending on where the error occured,this has led to various means of tracing and tracking products that are fast,cheap and easy to use. A company recently came up with an innovation using QR CODE; A traceability system developed in New Zealand uses Quick Response (QR) codes so consumers with smartphones can have an easily accessible history of the source and status of an item, whether it happens to be a dairy product, a car, or any other merchandise. ID locate is a relatively new product developed by a company based in Auckland, NZ. Companies implementing the system pay a one-time setup charge and then a monthly maintenance fee, while consumers interested in their brands can use it for free. Woman scanning food with phone at storeSimon Bell, who handles technical and operational issues for the company, explained that the generated information can alert consumers to a food fraud problem, a related recall, or other issues involving a particular product. “It’s all database-driven so when they scan the QR code, it generates a particular URL so whatever information we have around that particular product is unique. It could be anything. When a consumer scans it, it instantly tells them whether there’s a recall on that product,” “We’ve got a really good understanding of unique coding and imaging and a really good understanding of the application process. It’s incredibly secure and incredibly mobile; we can roll and do it in 15 minutes. We haven’t found anybody else who can do what we can do,” he said. There is almost no limit to the information which can be tracked on a food item. Besides the origin and recall history, it could be data from an outbreak investigation, video footage, or other content specific to that individual product, Bell noted. Lots of research is being done these days involving genetically engineered foods and various product investigations, but nothing has systematically been done linking that research with the consumer, he said. Read more here;http://www.foodsafetynews.com/2015/11/food-traceability-tool-developed-in-new-zealand-uses-qr-codes/#.VlRqzHarSM8

Most Turkey Producers Allow Routine Antibiotic Use.

A report shows that most turkey producers allow the indiscriminate use of antibiotics as growth promoters. Humane farming advocates Food Animal Concerns Trust (FACT) have released an overview of the antibiotics and other drugs used in turkey production.The organization is part of the Keep Antibiotics Working coalition, which recommends that food animal producers limit the use of medically important antibiotics to disease treatment in order to prevent overuse and subsequent spread of antibiotic resistance. FACT found that among the top 20 turkey producers, only Hain Pure Protein, marketed under the Plainville Farms Brand, and Tyson Foods, marketed under the Hillshire Brand, stated that they don’t allow their producers to routinely use antibiotics related to those used in humane medicine either for disease prevention or for growth promotion. FACT recommends that consumers avoid companies that allow ractopamine or routine antibiotic use and seek out companies that are transparent about the drugs they use in food production. The report also recommends that consumers look for products that are produced under a third-party certification that includes controls on veterinary drug use. read more here; http://www.foodsafetynews.com/2015/11/report-most-turkey-producers-allow-routine-antibiotic-use/#.VlRn23arSM8

NANO TECH WOUND HEALING OPTION FOR DIABETIC PATIENTS.

Scientists have developed antibacterial nano fibres of cellulose acetate loaded with silver that could be used in a new type of dressing to promote tissue repair. People with diabetes mellitus often suffer from impaired wound healing. Now, scientists in Egypt have developed antibacterial nanofibres of cellulose acetate loaded with silver that could be used in a new type of dressing to promote tissue repair. They reveal details of the new materials and their properties in the International Journal of Nanoparticles. The dressing absorbs fluids exuded by the wound, but also protects the wound from infectious agents while being permeable to air and moisture, the team reports. The use of this dressing also promotes collagen production as the wound heals, which helps to recreate normal skin strength and texture something that is lacking in unassisted wound healing in diabetes mellitus. The nano fibres from cellulose acetate, an inexpensive and easily fabricated, semisynthetic polymer used in everything from photographic film to coatings for eyeglasses and even cigarette filters. It can be spun into fibres and thus used to make an absorbent and safe wound dressing. The report is available here; http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/08/150810123758.htm

THE POWER OF VINEGAR!!!

Vinegar is acetic acid and it has antibacterial properties aside from it being a powerful cleaning agent.The benefits of acetic acid are utilized in the food industry where its utilized to clean food,table tops,food cabinets e.t.c. Check out older posts on vinegar. Vinegar can be used in various strength depending on what you want to use if for; the vinegar-water combination can be used as follows 1) can be used to clean and disinfect wounds. 2) as a flea repellent. 3) clean and disinfect tables,kitchen utensils. 4) wash fruits and vegetables. A new study now reveals that vinegar can be used in treatment of burn wounds;Infections of burn wounds are difficult to treat with traditional antibiotics as they do not effectively reach the wound, and the infecting organisms are often highly antibiotic resistant.The study, published in PLOS ONE, demonstrated that low concentrations of acetic acid can be used to treat bio films, and therefore could be used as alternatives to topical (surface applied) antimicrobials and traditional antimicrobial dressings for preventing bacterial colonization of burns. Miss Fenella Halstead, NIHR SRMRC Clinical Scientist at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital, explained, "As resistance to antibiotics grows, we need to find ways to replace them with alternative topical agents that can kill bacteria and help our burns patients. The evidence in this study offers great promise to be a cheap and effective measure to do just that." Read more about study here; http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/09/150915105208.htm

SNAKE VENOM USED TO STOP BLEEDING.

In what seems to be an ironic twist 2 scientist have demonstrated the ability of snake venom to stop bleeding even in the presence of anticoagulants.Rice University researchers Jeffrey Hartgerink, and Vivek Kumar developed SB50;an hydrogel. The product a nano fiber an hydrogel called SB50 incorporates batroxobin, a venom produced by two species of South American pit viper. It can be injected as a liquid and quickly turns into a gel that conforms to the site of a wound, keeping it closed, and promotes clotting within seconds.The hydrogel may be most useful for surgeries, particularly for patients who take anti-coagulant drugs to thin their blood. Batroxobin was recognized for its properties as a coagulant -- a substance that encourages blood to clot -- in 1936. It has been used in various therapies as a way to remove excess fibrin proteins from the blood to treat thrombosis and as a topical hemostat. It has also been used as a diagnostic tool to determine blood-clotting time in the presence of heparin, an anti-coagulant drug. The batroxobin combined with the Rice lab's hydrogels isn't taken directly from snakes, Hartgerink said. The substance used for medicine is produced by genetically modified bacteria and then purified, avoiding the risk of other contaminant toxins. read more here;http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/10/151026111913.htm

ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE IN HORSES.

The use of antimicrobial s in food animals have been linked to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in man and animals as well.The emergence of the super bugs has been the light on the way food animals are raised and managed,with people clamoring for antibiotic-free livestock production.Antibiotics in livestock should be used as treatment protocol and not as growth promoters in animals,because these residues do more harm to man that consume these animals.These antibiotic residues have been linked to several ailments plaguing man today. The antibiotic resistance war has enveloped the companion animals as well as other pets, a lot of pet lover/owners and handlers abuse the use of antibiotics as well resulting in resistance which affects their owners as well.The E.coli infection affecting man and animals are borne from gross misuse of antibiotics ; a recent study shows the resistance in horses; new review in the Equine Veterinary Journal reveals that antimicrobial resistance is prevalent in bacteria from horses, particularly E. coli. Also, while methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) can be common in hospitalized horses, it is less frequently present in the general equine population. The emergence of multidrug resistance in many other bacterial species, however, represents a huge challenge for society. Read more here http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/11/151120182819.htm

A BREECH IN BIOSECURITY PROTOCOL FINGERED FOR SPREAD OF BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA.

Bovine viral diarrhea that affected about 5,000 cattle of which 500 were destroyed in Germany,indicates a breech of bio security protocol as the cause of high incidence. Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) leads to severe disease and significant economic losses Caused by the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV). Bovine Viral Diarrhea suppresses the immune system and causes a variety of symptoms, including respiratory problems, infertility, and abortion. "A dairy farmer first noticed a reduction in milk yield, respiratory symptoms, nasal discharge, fever, sporadic diarrhea and sudden deaths -- these symptoms were also noted on other farms as the infection spread, but did not immediately indicate BVD as the cause," said Dr. Jörn Gethmann, lead author of the study from Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute. "We were surprised by the high morbidity and mortality an induced by a BVDV strain in this outbreak." The researchers supported the competent local authorities in tracing the spread of the virus. They visited eight farms and obtained data on a further 13 farms. They discovered that the virus was not transmitted directly by infected cattle, but mostly by people such as vets and traders who were moving between farms. "We were surprised to see the effective transmission to other farms without persistently infected animals involved," commented Dr. Gethmann. Bio security is very important at all levels of production; a simple hand washing ,wearing protective clothing,tyre dips,foot baths and use of protective gloves will prevent spread of infectious agents. Read more here;http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/09/150921090151.htm

A VIRUS IN CATTLE LINKED TO HUMAN BREAST CANCER.

A study has revealed the link between bovine leukemia virus and breast cancer; researchers analyzed breast tissue from 239 women, comparing samples from women who had breast cancer with women who had no history of the disease for the presence of bovine leukemia virus (BLV). They found that 59 percent of breast cancer samples had evidence of exposure to BLV, as determined by the presence of viral DNA. By contrast, 29 percent of the tissue samples from women who never had breast cancer showed exposure to BLV. Bovine leukemia virus infects dairy and beef cattle's blood cells and mammary tissue. The retrovirus is easily transmitted among cattle primarily through infected blood and milk, but it only causes disease in fewer than 5 percent of infected animals.This is another reason to handle animals,organs and blood with utmost care. Read more about the study here;http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/09/150915105004.htm

Monday, November 23, 2015

Pigeons can identify cancerous tissue on x-rays.

A new study shows that pigeons can distinguish between healthy and cancerous tissue in x-rays and microscope slides with an accuracy rate of up to 99%.In a series of three experiments, led by Richard Levenson, professor of pathology and laboratory medicine at the University of California Davis Medical Center, it was found that pigeons have the capacity to learn how to identify whether an image shows healthy or cancerous breast tissue. The birds “share many visual system properties with humans”, according to the study.“With some training and selective food reinforcement, pigeons do just as well as humans in categorizing digitized slides and mammograms of benign and malignant human breast tissue,” read more here;http://www.theguardian.com/society/2015/nov/19/pigeons-can-identify-cancerous-tissue-on-x-rays-study-finds

Sunday, November 22, 2015

HORSY INNOVATION.

An accident while trotting down the street on a horse, brought on a mission to develop an innovated light safety system. The system showcases LED lights, on both the front and tail units to warn, oncoming motorists that there is a rider on the road.Read more; http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3327748/That-really-tail-light-Firm-unveils-clips-light-horses-improve-rider-safety.html

Saturday, November 21, 2015

Horses and humans share facial expressions.

Horses use similar facial muscles to humans, suggesting an evolutionary parallel in how horses and humans use the face to communicate.Horses share some surprisingly similar facial expressions to humans and chimps, according to new University of Sussex research.Mammal communication researchers have shown that, like humans, horses use muscles underlying various facial features -- including their nostrils, lips and eyes -- to alter their facial expressions in a variety of social situations.read more here;http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/08/150805144820.htm

HUMAN WASTE HAS HIGH ENERGY VALUE.

Biogas potentially available from human waste worldwide would have a value of up to US$ 9.5 billion in natural gas equivalent, UN University's Canadian-based water institute estimates. And the residue, dried and charred, could produce 2 million tonnes of charcoal-equivalent fuel, curbing the destruction of trees. The large energy value would prove small, however, relative to that of the global health and environmental benefits that would accrue from the safe treatment of human waste in low-resource settings. read more about the research here;http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/11/151103064551.htm

WEEKEND MAKEOVER FOR YOUR DOG.

Its the weekend and a great time for a makeover for your pets; wash,shampoo and groom them. Check out these funny grooming options ; photo credit= internet.

Tackling plastic pollution with worms

Scientists report that mealworms can biodegrade Styrofoam and other types of plastic in their gut. The findings could potentially lead to new methods to tackle the growing problem of plastic pollution, according to researchers. watch video here; http://www.sciencedaily.com/videos/2110b19db9d2bc66c1f29c8a86647587.htm

Horse sickness shares signs of Alzheimer's.

Horses with a rare nerve condition have similar signs of disease as people with conditions such as Alzheimer's, a new study has found. The findings shed new light on the causes of the rare but predominately fatal horse condition and could help to develop new tools for diagnosing the illness. Scientists say that horses affected by the disease -- called equine grass sickness -- could also hold clues to human conditions.Grass sickness attacks nerve cells in horses but the causes of the disease are unknown. It causes gastric upset and muscle tremor and can kill within days. If diagnosed quickly, animals can sometimes be nursed back to health.They found that the horse tissue contained proteins that are commonly seen in the brains of people with Alzheimer's disease -- such as the build-up of amyloid protein.This knowledge could help to develop tests for detecting the condition in horses, which can be tricky to diagnose. read more here;http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/10/151005121140.htm

Intensive farming link to bovine TB..

A study by the University of Exeter, funded by BBSRC and published in the Royal Society journal Biological Letters, analysed data from 503 farms which have suffered a TB breakdown alongside 808 control farms in areas of high TB risk.Dr Fiona Mathews, Associate Professor in Mammalian Biology, who led the study, said: "TB is absolutely devastating for farming, and it's essential that workable solutions are found. In the worst hit areas, farms are frequently affected over and over again with crippling consequences. If lower intensity production means better animal health, it offers a sustainable long-term strategy in high risk areas." read more here ;http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/11/151111055318.htm

Early contact with dogs linked to lower risk of asthma.

Scientists have used national register information in more than one million children to study the association of early life contact with dogs and subsequent development of asthma. This question has been studied extensively previously, but conclusive findings have been lacking. The new study showed that children who grew up with dogs had about 15 percent less asthma than children without dogs. read more here;http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/11/151102143636.htm

Evidence of probable transmission of bird flu virus between two unrelated individuals.

The study describes two patients who shared the same ward in a district hospital in Zhejiang Province, China in February 2015.Hospital acquired (nosocomial) infection most likely route of transmission, The first (index) case was a 49 year old man who became ill after buying two chickens from a live poultry market for the wedding ceremony of his elder daughter. He developed a fever, cough, and sore throat and was admitted to a district hospital on 18 February. He was diagnosed with H7N9 virus on 24 February and was admitted to a specialist hospital ward with intensive care facilities. He died of multi-organ failure on 20 April. The second case, a 57 year old man with a history of chronic lung disease (COPD), developed flu-like symptoms after staying on the same ward of the district hospital as the index case for five days (18 to 23 February). He was diagnosed with H7N9 virus on 25 February and died of respiratory failure on 2 March. A total of 38 close contacts of both cases, including family members and health workers, were tested for the virus. Two samples taken from the chickens purchased by the index patient as well as five of 11 samples from the live poultry market he visited were positive for H7N9 virus.The second patient had no history of poultry exposure for 15 days prior to his illness. Samples from his home, from chickens raised by his neighbours, and a local chicken farm were all negative for H7N9 virus. Yet the genetic sequence of H7N9 virus from the second patient was nearly identical to that from the index patient, and genetically similar to the virus samples taken from the live poultry market visited by the index patient. The researchers stress that they cannot completely rule out an unidentified environmental exposure that might explain the H7N9 infection in the second patient.They say these results "should raise our concern about the increasing threat to public health" and they call for better training and hospital hygiene as well as enhanced surveillance of both patients with influenza-like illness in hospitals and chickens in live poultry markets Read more about unconventional routes of birdflu virus transmission and how to prevent transmission.http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/11/151119095824.htm

POOP PILL CURES DEADLY GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE..

The country’s first stool bank, OpenBiome, is now selling capsules of fecal matter to treat life-threatening Clostridium difficile, or C. diff, infections.The $635 pill-based therapy, a type of fecal transplant, is highly effective against the difficult-to-treat gastrointestinal infection, according to results of a pilot study. A single dose, which includes a whopping 30 pills, cured 70 percent of patients. A second dose bumped the success rate up to 94 percent. The treatment, currently being sold only to doctors, may offer an easier alternative to other effective fecal transplant routes, namely colonoscopies, nasal tubes, and enemas. C. diff infections sometimes take root while a patient is on antibiotics, which kills off and disrupts the patient's normal, healthy gut microbiome. In antibiotics’ wake, C. diff bacteria that usually reside quietly in the gut can run amok and produce toxins. Fecal transplants can stamp out the infection by replacing a patient’s disrupted gut microbial community with the gut microbes from a healthy patient, transferred via feces. Read more ;http://arstechnica.com/science/2015/11/635-poop-pills-cure-deadly-gastrointestinal-infection/

GENE THAT MAKES BACTERIA IMMUNE TO LAST RESORT ANTIBIOTICS HAS POTENTIAL TO SPREAD.

A newly identified gene that renders bacteria resistant to polymyxin antibiotics—drugs often used as the last line of defense against infections—has the potential to be shared between different types of bacteria. The finding raises concern that the transferable gene could make its way into infectious bacteria that are already highly resistant to drugs, thereby creating strains of bacteria immune to every drug in doctors’ arsenal.Researchers fear it could move to new bacteria and create unstoppable superbugs. The gene, dubbed mcr-1, exists on a tiny, circular piece of DNA called a plasmid. These genetic elements, common among bacteria, are mobile; bacteria can make copies of them and share them with whatever bacteria happens to be nearby. Though scientists have previously discovered genes for polymyxin resistance, those genes were embedded in bacterial genomes, thus were not likely to easily spread. Read more;http://arstechnica.com/science/2015/11/gene-that-makes-bacteria-immune-to-last-resort-antibiotic-can-spread/

INDISCRIMINATE USE OF ANTIBIOTICS IN FARM ANIMALS AFFECTING KIDS.!!!

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) argues that unnecessary use of antibiotics in livestock is fueling drug-resistant, life-threatening infections in humans, particularly young children. . As Ars has reported before, the vast majority of antibiotics used in the US go to agriculture and aquaculture—about 80 percent of total tonnage, to be exact. Those drugs are often given to livestock to fatten them up or prevent future illness. Such doses of drugs, many of which have crossovers in human medicine, can spur drug-resistant microbes that may make their way off the farm and spread to food or share their drug-resistant genes with other microbes, the AAP noted. More than 2 million people in the US catch drug-resistant infections each year, resulting in 23,000 deaths, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The agency does not report how many of those infections and deaths are in children. However, previous research has found that the incidence of some types of drug-resistant infections are increasing in children nationwide. Additionally, the AAP notes that the CDC’s data on foodborne disease incidence shows that kids under 5 years of age are often most at risk. In particular, the AAP’s technical report notes that common foodborne drug-resistant infections in kids include those caused by Salmonella, Campylobacter and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Kids may be exposed to farm-borne drug-resistant microbes from contact with livestock, food, and environmental sources, such as surfaces in homes and supermarkets.The AAP recommends that livestock producers only give antibiotics to animals when they are sick.Read more here; http://arstechnica.com/science/2015/11/pediatricians-say-farm-use-of-antibiotics-harm ofs-children/

THE FIRST GM FOOD ANIMAL GETS APPROVAL.; THE ATLANTIC SALMON.

After two decades of deliberation, the USA's Food and Drug Administration has approved the first ever genetically engineered food animal, a fast-growing Atlantic Salmon called AquAdvantage salmon. The modified salmon are safe to eat, equally nutritious as other salmon, and should pose no threat to the environment.The Atlantic salmon are modified to carry a growth hormone gene from Chinook salmon. The gene is further engineered to be under the control of a tiny bit of DNA, called a promoter, from the eel-like ocean pout fish. In general, DNA promoters are non-coding sequences that help control the expression level of a gene—how much protein product is synthesized from the gene. With the engineered promoter boosting hormone production, the modified salmon grow to market-size in about half the time of conventional Atlantic salmon. The long approval process, the FDA assessed the nutritional profiles and hormone levels, comparing the modified fish to unmodified farm-raised Atlantic salmon. The agency found no significant differences.Read more here;http://arstechnica.com/science/2015/11/fda-approves-first-gmo-food-animal-atlantic-salmon/

PROSTHESIS FOR ELEPHANT.

( photo credit; internet) Giving this elephant a new limb and a new lease of life.

Resistance to 'Last-Resort' Antibiotic Found in China

CHINA - Scientists in China have found increased levels of resistance to an antimicrobial drug used when other drugs have failed, according to a report in the journal Lancet Infectious Diseases. The scientists were conducting routine surveillance for antibiotic resistance in E. coli when they found the resistant specimen in a pig. They also found on further investigation that the type of resistance carried can be easily transferred to other bacteria. The resistance gene was found in 15 per cent of E. coli collected from raw meat samples, 21 per cent of samples from animals and 1 per cent of samples from inpatients with infection.The scientists said that urgent global action was needed to fight antimicrobial resistance.Read more ; http://www.thepoultrysite.com/poultrynews/36184/resistance-to-lastresort-antibiotic-found-in-china/

HORSE RESCUE AFTER DAM BURST!!!

Read more here;http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/nov/07/brazilian-rescue-teams-struggle-to-reach-villages-in-path-of-dam-burst#img-1

SMUGGLING OF STAR TORTOISE FROM INDIA.

A large-scale network,supported by high international demand for exotic pets, is causing extreme suffering to the animals and threatening the survival of the star tortoise. In one site alone, at least 55,000 tortoises were poached from the wild in one year,for centuries, in rural parts of India, star tortoises (Geochelone elegans) have been traditionally kept as pets in many homes, their owners believing that they bring good luck and fortune. The unique star-like yellow pattern on their shell is making them an increasingly popular target for illegal wildlife trade.The number of tortoises being smuggled is staggering. Wildlife experts have estimated more than 50,000 are illegally collected from just one group of villages each year alone.After being transported to eastern India, the tortoises are shipped off to other Asian countries like Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore and China.read more about the illegal trade here;http://www.theguardian.com/environment/gallery/2015/nov/20/fading-stars-indias-illegal-tortoise-trade-in-pictures